Human Gene Hereditary Cancer Test
- What is hereditary cancer?
Hereditary cancers are those cancers caused by the inheritance of a genetic mutation that could increase the risk of certain cancers. Sometimes a particular cancer is being recognized among members of a family. Apart from exogenous carcinogens such as obesity or smoking, in some cases, the cause of this phenomenon is the transference of mutated genes from one generation to the other. Between 5 to 10 percent of cancers are directly due to the inheritance of defective genes from parents.
- Why should we do this test?
There are possibilities of genetic changes in human body since we are born. Some of these changes in human DNA significantly increase the risk of Cancer. Our screening tests could reveal any changes that lead to cancer in certain genes. The purpose of this test is to determine the probability of hereditary cancer occurrence in humans. Knowing this will help your physician to offer you the most appropriate preventive method. If genetic causes of cancer is mentioned in your result, your doctor may ask you for additional tests such as mammography, colonoscopy and CT scan to give you better advice on improving your health and choosing the best preventative method.
- Who should do this test?
This test is only for those at high risk of developing hereditary cancers. If you or one of your close relatives has a history of suffering from one of the cancers, this test can estimate the likelihood of developing hereditary cancers in the future.
- How is the test done?
The DNA is extracted from patient’s blood sample and by using advanced DNA sequencing devices, genetic data will be reviewed and genes involved in occurrence of hereditary cancers will be detected.
- What are the most common hereditary cancers?
- Breast and Ovary hereditary cancer syndrome
Changes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are known to be the main cause of this syndrome. In addition to breast and Ovary cancer syndrome, it may also cause cancers in uterine, pancreas and prostate.
- Lynch Syndrome or Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer
The most important factor in Colon cancer is lynch syndrome. Risk of colorectal, ovarian, stomach, small intestine, pancreatic, brain, kidney and urethral and biliary cancers are higher in patients with Lynch Syndrome. Changes in MLH1, MLH2, MSH6, PMS1 and PMS2 are the main cause of this syndrome.
- Li-Fraumeni Syndrome
Cancers which are most likely to be associated with Lee-Fraumeni Syndrome are breast cancer, a type of bone cancer called Osteosarcoma and soft tissue sarcomas. Other common cancers which are caused by this syndrome are:
Brain tumors, Leukemias and Adrenocortical carcinoma (which is the external layer of adrenal glands). In addition, other type of cancers has been seen in people with Li-Fraumeni syndrome.
There is a possibility of occurring more than one cancer for people with Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Also there is a greater risk of cancer due to exposure to radiotherapy in this group people.
Changes in TP53 and CHEK2 genes are known as the main cause of this syndrome.